What Is a Data Engineer? A Guide to This In-Demand Career

November 29th, 2023

Kripa Pokharel

What Is a Data Engineer? A Guide to This In-Demand Career


In our ever-evolving technological landscape, the role of a data engineer has become increasingly pivotal, especially in the era dominated by big data. This comprehensive guide aims to delve deeper into the multifaceted realm of data engineering, shedding light on its diverse responsibilities, the dynamic skill set required, promising career prospects, and actionable steps for individuals to embark on a truly enriching journey in this continually growing and in-demand field.

The Surge of Data Engineering in the Age of Big Data

The onset of big data has undeniably transformed the operational dynamics of businesses, creating an unprecedented demand for adept professionals capable of navigating and harnessing the colossal power of massive datasets. Data engineering, as a practice, goes beyond mere data collection; it involves the meticulous design and construction of systems dedicated to the seamless storage, retrieval, and analysis of data at scale. This field permeates across diverse industries, offering a pivotal role in ensuring not only efficient data collection but also the transformation of data into a highly accessible and usable state for data scientists and analysts.

By 2025, projections indicate a colossal production of 463 exabytes of data daily. This staggering statistic underscores the indispensable need for adept professionals who can not only manage but also adeptly process this astronomical amount of information, creating an ideal breeding ground for those considering a career in data engineering.

The Role of a Data Engineer: Tasks and Responsibilities

Data engineers play a crucial, multifaceted role in the expansive data ecosystem, where their responsibilities span from conceptualization to design and construction of systems that efficiently transform raw data into actionable insights. This comprehensive role encompasses various tasks, such as strategically acquiring datasets aligned with dynamic business needs, crafting sophisticated algorithms to seamlessly transmute raw data into actionable, business-centric information, and the continuous building, testing, and maintenance of intricate database pipeline architectures fundamental to the data engineering process.

Collaboration with management to comprehend and align with company objectives is another paramount aspect of a data engineer's responsibilities. Additionally, the creation of innovative data validation methods and data analysis tools contributes to the establishment of a robust and efficient data infrastructure. Importantly, data engineers are tasked with ensuring compliance with rigorous data governance and security policies, thus safeguarding the integrity and confidentiality of the data they meticulously manage.

In smaller companies, the data engineer often transcends these core responsibilities, donning multiple hats and engaging in a diverse range of data-related tasks in a generalist role. Conversely, larger enterprises may carve out specialized roles, with some data engineers dedicated to the construction of intricate data pipelines and others focusing on the meticulous management of extensive data warehouses—both involving the essential tasks of populating warehouses with data and creating elaborate table schemas to effectively keep track of the perpetual flow of data and its strategic storage.

Distinguishing Data Engineers from Analysts and Scientists

It's imperative to draw distinctions between the roles of data engineers, data analysts, and data scientists to grasp the full spectrum of the dynamic data landscape. While data engineers primarily focus on building the foundational systems for collecting and preparing high-quality data, data analysts and data scientists delve into the subsequent stages of the data lifecycle. In this realm, they analyze datasets to extract valuable insights and patterns that inform strategic decision-making processes. Data engineers, essentially, operate as the architects working diligently behind the scenes, ensuring that raw data is not only curated but also transformed into a usable state for analytical teams to glean actionable insights.

Why Embark on a Career in Data Engineering?

Beyond its inherent value, a career in data engineering is not only financially rewarding but also inherently challenging, providing professionals with the unique opportunity to play a pivotal role in an organization's success. By facilitating easier access to data, data engineers empower data scientists, analysts, and decision-makers to perform their roles more efficiently and make informed, data-driven decisions that can significantly impact an organization's trajectory.

The field of data engineering is experiencing an unprecedented demand, as evidenced by Dice Insights reporting in 2019 that data engineering emerged as a top-trending job in the technology industry. This surpassed other roles, including computer scientists, web designers, and database architects. Furthermore, LinkedIn recognized data engineering as one of the jobs on the rise in 2021, solidifying its continued prominence and relevance in the ever-evolving job market.

Data Engineer Salary and Career Trajectory

Beyond its intrinsic value, data engineering is renowned for being a well-compensated career path. According to Glassdoor (May 2022), the average salary for data engineers in the United States stands impressively at $115,176, with some seasoned professionals in the field commanding salaries as high as $168,000 annually. This financial remuneration, coupled with the dynamic nature of the role, makes data engineering an attractive and lucrative career option for those with a passion for working with data.

The career trajectory for data engineers is diverse, offering numerous avenues for growth. Many data engineers commence their professional journey as software engineers or business intelligence analysts, leveraging their foundational skills to gradually advance into managerial roles or specialize in positions such as data architect, solutions architect, or even a machine learning engineer. The flexibility and adaptability within the field provide professionals with the autonomy to shape their career trajectory based on evolving interests and expertise.

How to Become a Data Engineer: Skills and Education

Becoming a proficient data engineer necessitates a strategic combination of education, skills acquisition, and practical experience. While a bachelor's degree in computer science or a related field is undoubtedly beneficial, it's not an absolute prerequisite, as many successful data engineers boast diverse educational backgrounds that have equipped them with the necessary skills and acumen to excel in the field. Nevertheless, pursuing a degree can offer a solid foundation in this rapidly-evolving field, ensuring that individuals are well-versed in the foundational principles of computer science, programming, and database management.

Key Skills for Data Engineers:

  1. Coding: Proficiency in coding languages is not just beneficial; it is essential to the role. Consider undertaking courses to learn and practice coding skills in languages such as SQL, NoSQL, Python, Java, R, and Scala.
  2. Databases: Familiarity with both relational and non-relational databases is paramount. Understanding the intricacies of how these databases function and when to employ each type is crucial to effective data engineering.
  3. ETL Systems: The Extract, Transform, Load (ETL) process is a cornerstone of data engineering. Mastery of ETL systems and tools such as Xplenty, Stitch, Alooma, and Talend is fundamental to seamlessly moving data from various sources into a consolidated repository, such as a data warehouse.
  4. Data Storage: Not all types of data should be stored in the same manner, especially when dealing with big data. Designing data solutions for a company requires a nuanced understanding of when to use a data lake versus a data warehouse, for example, ensuring optimal data storage practices.
  5. Automation and Scripting: Automation is an integral part of working with big data, primarily because organizations now have the capacity to collect vast amounts of information. Proficiency in writing scripts to automate repetitive tasks is an invaluable skill for data engineers.
  6. Machine Learning: While machine learning is typically associated with data scientists, having a foundational grasp of its basic concepts can enhance collaboration and understanding of the needs of data scientists within a team.
  7. Big Data Tools: Data engineers are not solely confined to regular data; they often deal with managing big data. Staying abreast of tools and technologies in this domain is imperative. Some popular tools include Hadoop, MongoDB, and Kafka.
  8. Cloud Computing: With companies increasingly transitioning from physical servers to cloud services, understanding cloud storage and computing is essential. Beginners may consider enrolling in courses related to Amazon Web Services (AWS) or Google Cloud to develop proficiency in cloud technologies.
  9. Data Security: While some companies may have dedicated data security teams, many data engineers find themselves tasked with securely managing and storing data to protect it from potential loss or theft. A thorough understanding of data security principles is crucial in this regard.

Education and Certification:

●     Pursuing a bachelor's or master's degree in computer science or a related field is a beneficial foundation. Some bachelor's degree programs even offer concentrations in data engineering, further specializing one's knowledge.

●     Consider obtaining certifications such as Associate Big Data Engineer, Cloudera Certified Professional Data Engineer, IBM Certified Data Engineer, or Google Cloud Certified Professional Data Engineer. These certifications not only validate your skills but also provide an excellent opportunity to further develop your expertise and knowledge.

Building a Successful Data Engineering Career


A well-curated portfolio showcasing data engineering projects is a crucial component of a successful job search. By adding completed projects—whether independent or part of coursework—to a portfolio website using services like Wix or Squarespace, or alternatively, by showcasing them on LinkedIn or GitHub, aspiring data engineers can effectively demonstrate their skills, problem-solving abilities, and practical application of knowledge to potential employers.

Entry-Level Positions:

Many data engineers commence their careers in entry-level roles such as business intelligence analyst or database administrator. These roles serve as foundational stepping stones, enabling individuals to gain hands-on experience, acquire new skills, and gradually progress into more advanced and specialized roles within the field.

Continuous Learning:

Staying abreast of industry trends, emerging technologies, and evolving tools is paramount for success in data engineering. Platforms like Coursera offer targeted learning paths specifically tailored for data engineering, enabling professionals to continually update their skill set and stay competitive in the ever-evolving landscape.

Do I Need a Degree to Become a Data Engineer?

While not an absolute necessity, having a degree can undoubtedly be advantageous in securing a position as a data engineer. While some companies may prefer candidates with at least a bachelor's degree, the field is known for its openness to professionals with diverse educational backgrounds, provided they possess the requisite skills and knowledge. For those interested in pursuing a career in data engineering and planning to pursue a degree, majoring in computer science, software engineering, data science, or information systems can be particularly beneficial.

Furthermore, some bachelor's degree programs offer specialized concentrations in data engineering, providing students with focused and targeted knowledge in this rapidly-growing field. As an illustrative example, the Bachelor of Science in Computer Science from the University of London features an optional module in databases and advanced data techniques, showcasing the recognition of the importance of data engineering within academic programs.

Next Steps:

Whether you are just embarking on your journey or considering a pivot to a new career, there are various avenues to build job-ready skills for roles in data engineering. Programs such as Google Data Analytics, IBM Data Science, or IBM Data Engineering Professional Certificates offer structured learning paths designed to equip individuals with the skills and knowledge necessary to thrive in the dynamic field of data engineering.


A career in data engineering is not only financially rewarding but also offers the unique opportunity to make a significant impact in the data-driven landscape of the future. By acquiring the right skills, pursuing education, obtaining relevant certifications, and continually updating one's knowledge, individuals can position themselves for a successful and fulfilling career in this dynamic and ever-evolving field.

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